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  • OCT also is known as POU F plays

    2024-07-09

    OCT4 (also is known as POU5F1) plays an important role in embryonic stem cell self-renewal, development and reprogram somatic cell into pluripotent stem cell [[5], [6], [7]]. Recently, many studies also find OCT4 promotes the progression of many tumors. For example, Wnt/β-catenin promotes the expansion of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma through activating OCT4 [8]. OCT4 promotes HCC growth through increasing BIRC5 and CCND1 expression [9]. OCT4 has 6 pseudogenes, and could be transcribed in many cancers [10]. POU5F1B (also known as OCT4-pg1) is one of OCT4 pseudogenes, and has 95% homologous with OCT4, previous studies have found it is a susceptibility gene in many tumors, such as colorectal cancer [11], receptor tyrosine kinase cancer [12] and chronic lymphocytic leukemia [13]. It promotes gastric cancer proliferation, growth, tumorigenicity and angiogenesis by cooperating with MYC [14]. Another pseudogene of OCT4, OCT4-pg4 has been found to promote HCC proliferation and tumorigenicity through function as a sponge for tumor suppressor miR-145 [15]. But the role of POU5F1B in HCC progression hasn’t been studied. In this study, we main studied the role of POU5F1B in HCC proliferation, and its regulatory mechanism, we found POU5F1B was a new target for HCC therapy.
    Materials and methods
    Results
    Discussion PI3K/AKT pathway is activated by mutations in the regulatory subunit coding genes (PIK3R1, PIK3R2 and PIK3R3), catalytic subunit coding genes (PIK3CA, PIK3CB and PIK3CD), or growth factor stimulation through receptor tyrosine kinases, once activating, PIP3 brings PDK1 and AKT together, PDK1 phosphorylates AKT on Ser308. Phosphorylated AKT could inhibit the expression of many tumor suppressors to promote cell proliferation and to suppress apoptosis, such as FOXO family proteins, GSK3, P53 and BAD [24]. Moreover, AKT also could be phosphorylated by TSC2 at Ser473, then stimulates mTORC1 by activating Rheb activity, mTORC1 could increase protein synthesis by phosphorylation eIF4E and S6 [[25], [26], [27]]. Many inhibitors for PI3K/AKT pathway have been developed, such as PX-866 and GDC-0941 for PI3K [28]. NVP-BEZ235 for PI3K/mTOR [29].
    Conflict ofinterest
    Acknowledgement
    Introduction Atherosclerosis leads to narrowing of the vessel and many cardiovascular complications. Vascular calcification is a manifestation of the atherosclerotic lesions, which reduces elasticity and compliance of the vessel wall [1], and is an independent risk factor for subsequent cardiovascular mortality [2], [3]. Previously considered a passive calcium deposition, vascular calcification has now been determined as an active cell-regulated process resembling bone modeling [4]. We and others have demonstrated that osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is important for the development of vascular calcification [5], [6], [7]. Increased oxidative stress plays a critical role in promoting atherosclerosis [8] and vascular calcification [5]. In the atherosclerotic lesions of the high-fat-fed ApoE deficient mice (ApoE-/-), we have shown that increased oxidative stress is associated with increased vascular calcification [7]. Using a primary VSMC culture system, we have determined that oxidative stress induces vascular calcification through activation of AKT signaling pathways that upregulate the key osteogenic transcription factor, Runx2 [5]. Furthermore, activation of AKT in diabetic mice by O-GlcNAcylation also promotes VSMC calcification [9]. Consistently, constitutively activated AKT was sufficient to promote VSMC calcification in vitro and vascular calcification in animals in vivo[10]. These studies have supported the concept that activation of AKT signaling mediates oxidative stress and hyperglycemia-induced vascular calcification. Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) is a small molecule that has been shown to inhibit AKT activation while increasing oxidative stress in cancer cells [11], [12]. Early studies have found that DCA reduce blood glucose in diabetic dogs [13] and fasting hyperglycemia in diabetic patients [14]. It has also been recently been tested in phase I clinical trials to treat patients with advanced solid tumors [15], [16]. DCA exhibits potent anti-cancer activity in cancer cells [17], [18] and animal models [12], [19], [20], via inducing oxidative stress that causes apoptosis in cancer cells [21], [22]. Similarly, DCA exhibited protective effects on hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension via inducing apoptosis of the pulmonary smooth muscle cells [23], [24]. Most recently, DCA was found to prevent injury-induced restenosis in animal models by inducing apoptosis of smooth muscle cells [25]. Although the effects of DCA on vascular calcification have not been investigated, the regulation of DCA on the pro-calcification signals, oxidative stress, AKT and cell death, suggests that it may play a role in the development of vascular calcification.