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  • The dependence of blood cell

    2024-05-18

    The dependence of blood cell production on a limited number of HSC and HPC (hereafter collectively referred to as HSPC) means that protection from potential toxins is essential for maintenance of the hematologic system (see Fig. 1). For example, the generation of blood cells within the intramedullary marrow space of heavily calcified bones probably protects cells from typical doses of external ionizing radiation. Immature HSPC express a number of proteins which appear to protect them from toxicological injury. For example, the ABC transporter protein MDR1 expressed by HSC increases the export of various xenobiotics, including some chemotherapy drugs [5]. Because genotoxic injury is inevitable, an important protective mechanism is the expression of various proteins involved in DNA repair pathways [6]. These pathways include those for repair of single strand breaks, such as BLU9931 excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), and mismatch repair (MMR). To repair double strand breaks, cells express pathways for non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination (HR), or microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ). Additionally, cells can use tolerance methods to continue to replicate DNA around lesions, called translesion synthesis (TLS). Interstrand crosslinks (ICL), another type of DNA lesion, are recognized and repaired by the Fanconi anemia pathway. Each of these means of DNA repair depend on both the type of DNA lesion, as well as the state of the cell cycle, as to whether a template will be available to make the repair, as in the case of a double strand break. Additionally, each repair pathway has its own unique set of proteins involved in recognizing, excising the damaged areas, and repairing the lesion, as well as proteins that are involved in multiple pathways, resulting in overlap and potentially crosstalk [7,8].
    Genomic instability and Fanconi anemia Genetic diseases involving impaired repair of DNA damage, such as Fanconi anemia (FA), have profound hematologic consequences. FA results from mutations of the FA pathway genes specifically required for repair of ICL [8]. Clinically, FA patients have congenital structural anomalies (birth defects); progressive exhaustion of their HSC pool leading to marrow failure (aplastic anemia); damage to HSPC, resulting in increased risk of leukemia, particularly acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and increased susceptibility to other cancers, especially squamous cell carcinomas of the skin, upper airway and head and neck [9]. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) can cure aplastic anemia and AML in FA patients, but increased susceptibility to cancer in other somatic cells persists, resulting in high rates of post-transplant mortality. FA is a syndrome caused by mutations in one of at least 20 genes, which comprise the Fanconi complementation (FANC) groups [8,10,11]. The proteins in the FA complex are essential for resolving DNA damage due to ICL. The FANC A, B, C, E, F, G, L, M, and T gene products form the Fanconi Anemia Core Complex, an ubiquitin E3 ligase which ubiquitinates the ID2 complex, which is comprised of the FANCI and FANCD2 subunits. [8]. Monoubiquinated ID2 recruits other proteins to excise ICLs, followed by recruitment of additional proteins to repair the lesions by homologous recombination (HR) [8,10]. FA patients are homozygotes or compound heterozygotes for at least one of the genes encoding the FA complex, and are hypersensitive to DNA bifunctional alkylating agents (which cause crosslinks) and radiation. In the absence of functional FA pathway activation, the presence of ICL is deleterious to cells in several ways, notably interference with transcription and blocking of the replication fork in dividing cells. In addition, the inability to activate HR to repair the lesions results in activation of alternative DNA repair pathways, e.g., the error-prone non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair. Activation of NHEJ likely causes mutations. The hypersensitivity to DNA damaging agents is demonstrated in vitro by induction of numerous cytogenetic abnormalities, such as radial chromosomes after exposure to alkylating agents, like diepoxybutane (DEB) or mitomycin C [12]. This hypersensitivity has been used to screen patients or family members for suspected FA. The hypersensitivity of FA cells to DNA damage is manifested clinically in several ways. Patients receiving chemotherapy for treatment of leukemia or other cancers, or as pre-transplant conditioning to ablate host immune cells before hematopoietic stem cell transplant or chemotherapy for leukemia, develop excessive toxicity and require reduced doses of chemotherapy or radiation to prevent fatal side effects. Secondly, even after successful cure of aplastic anemia, FA patients develop secondary malignancies at an alarming rate. Approximately one-half of transplanted patients BLU9931 develop cancer in the first 15years after successful HSCT [13].